Tuberculosis can have varied presentations in the chest including pleural effusions. Tuberculous pleuritis has a high incidence in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV. Complications of tuberculous pleural disease include:
- pleural thickening
- fibrothorax - calcified and thickened pleura, loss of lung volume, adjacent rib hypertrophy, epipleural fat pads, often unilateral
- chronic persistent pleural effusion - content of the effusion are near soft tissue density
- empyema necessitans - decompression of an empyema through the chest wall, fistulous tract between a pleural collection and an extrathoracic fluid collection may be seen, other sites of extension include breast, esophagus, pericardium, vertebral column, retroperitoneum, flank, groin
- bronchopleural fistula - air/fluid collections in the pleural space, pleural thickening, atelectasis and bronchiectasis in ipsilateral lung, fistulous connection may be seen
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Jung-Ah C, Hong KT, Oh YW, et al. CT manifestations of late sequelae in patients with tuberculous pleuritis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001;176(2)441-5.