The PFR is related to the compliance of the ventricles and the pressure gradient between the atrium and ventricle. Peak filling rates normally decline with age. A normal PFR is greater than or equal to 2.5 end-diastolic volumes per second. The time to PFR should be less than 180 msec. I can't find normal values for PER and time to PER.
The PFR is decreased in
- Coronary artery disease
- Congestive heart failure: About 40% of patients with CHF have preserved systolic function, but impaired diastolic function.
- Aortic valve disease
- Rejection following cardiac transplant
- Hypertension: Isolated decreased PFR may be an early indicator of hypertensive heart failure.
- Medications: Nitroglycerin, beta blockers, doxorubicin
- Constrictive pericarditis (not always)
- Mitral regurgitation
- Medications: Calcium channel blockers
- Mettler FA and Guiberteau MJ. Chapter 6: Cardiovascular System. In Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging. Fifth Edition. Saunders, Philadelphia. 2006.
- Williams S. Equilibrium MUGA. Aunt Minnie. 2002.