The etiology is multifactorial and includes the following:
- Steroid therapy: Steroids are thought to induce atrophy of Peyer patches, creating mucosal defects that allow dissection of gas into the submucosal or subserosal space.
- Infection: Due to invasion of the bowel wall by gas-producing bacteria.
- Acute graft-versus-host disease:
- Pre-transplantation chemotherapy/radiation therapy: Toxic effect on gastrointestinal mucosa.
- Septic shock:
- Small bowel obstruction: