Saturday, April 23, 2011

Causes of Polyhydramnios

  • Idiopathic: About 60% of cases.
  • Maternal causes: Diabetes (increases fetal urination), infection (CMV, toxoplasmosis).
  • Placental causes: Placental tumors (e.g., chorioangioma) or vascular malformations.
  • Fetal causes
    • Central nervous system: Decreased swallowing.
    • Gastrointestinal: Atresias at various levels.
    • Cardiovascular: Anemia leading to hyperdynamic circulation and increased fetal urination.
    • Neoplastic: Thoracic lesions with mass effect on esophagus. Renal tumors (mesoblastic nephroma, congenital Wilms). Sacrococcygeal teratoma. Large ovarian cyst.
    • Chromosomal: For example, trisomy 21, 18.

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