- Osteophytes: Originate near the superior and inferior margins of the vertebral bodies.
- Paraspinal ossifications: Irregular, asymmetric ossification affecting paravertebral soft tissues with an appearance similar to that of psoriasis.
- Syndesmophytes: Thin areas of ossification with a symmetric vertical orientation in the outer portions of the annulus fibrosus, mimicking ankylosing spondylitis.
- Flowing ossifications: Similar to those seen with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Seen in 3% of quadriplegic and 1% of paraplegic patients (may not be significantly higher than that found in the general population).
- Park YH, Huang GS, Taylor JA, Marcelis S, Kramer J, Pathria MN, Clopton P, Resnick D. Patterns of vertebral ossification and pelvic abnormalities in paralysis: a study of 200 patients. Radiology. 1993 Aug;188(2):561-5.
- Killebrew K, Gold RH, Sholkoff SD. Psoriatic spondylitis. Radiology. 1973 Jul;108(1):9-16.